Russia victorious in Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878.
Russo-Turkish Treaty of San Stefano (February 19, 1878) provides for
protection and reforms for Armenians. Great Britain negotiates a secret
Cyprus Convention with Turkey (June 1978) to allow British to establish
bases on Cyprus and to administer Cyprus. In return, Britain insists
Russo-Turkish issues be decided, instead, by an international conference.
The resulting Congress of Berlin (June 1978) replaces the protective
measures of San Stefano under Article 16 with unsatisfactory and
ineffective provisions for Armenian people under Article 61, and returns
Garin (Erzerum) to Turkey. Russia retains Kars and Ardahan.
Sultan Abdul Hamid II, known as the Bloody Sultan, suspends the
Armenian National Constitution, and also discontinues the national
parliament in Constantinople, which includes some Armenian
Sassun's Gelie-guzan village massacre, known as the "Gelie-guzan Hole
Carnage" takes place. Here, Turks inaugurate the system of slaughtering
unarmed people, which later was the prototype for Hitler's concentration
1894 August 25-30
Sassun's Gebin Mount carnage is inflicted when the Turkish army manages
to force Armenian women, children and old men to leave Andok for the
forest on the bottom of mountain. The army ignites the forest and burns
the Armenians alive. Note: This is a harbinger of the extermination of
future victims by burning them alive in stables and other large storage
10,000 Armenians are killed and 74 Armenian villages are destroyed in
Armenians refuse to pay illegal taxes to Kurdish
irregular forces in Sassun. Unrest in the vilayet of Bitlis, near Mush.
Revolt in Sassun. Attempted uprising against Kurdish oppression is
followed by massacres in Sassun. A joint report published on July 28, 1895
by the Commission of Inquiry created by the initiative of the Great
Powers, estimates the number of victims at 5,000.
Governments of six countries present the Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid II
a special note describing the disastrous conditions of Armenia and demand
the Turkish government to carry out improvements.
Joint memorandum presented by Britain, France and Russia
to the Sultan, pointing out the disastrous situation in the Armenian
provinces and urging him to proceed with the reforms. The Imperial Turkish
Government replies in August 1895 and promises to carry out the reforms
specified in Article 61 of the Treaty of Berlin (1978).
1895 September 30
Carnage of Armenians in Baberd at the hands of the Turks.
1895 September 30, October
In the Bab Ali section of Constantinople, Armenians carry out a
peaceful demonstration. The Turks set upon killing Armenians. 2000
Armenians die. Protests by the Great Powers by joint note from three
ambassadors (French, British and Russian) on October 13-15 demand reforms.
On October 31 a decree is issued, providing for reforms.
1895 October 5
Mass obliteration of Armenians takes place in Trebizond and its
villages. Armenians of Sassun share the same fate.
1895 October 7
Armenians of Derjan province are slaughtered by the Turks.
1895 October 8
Massacres of Armenians by Turks begin in the vilayet of Trebizond as
confirmed by the report of Gillieres, the French Consul in
1895 October 9
The carnage of Armenians at Erzingan and Kamakh by the Turks.
1895 October 10
In Kghi province more than 1000 Armenians are killed, and dozens of
villages destroyed. In Bitlis, 102 villages are destroyed. On the same day
the carnage of Armenians at Charsanjak and in its villages begins, taking
almost 700 lives. In Balu, the body count of Armenian victims reaches
1200, Arabkir - 2800, Torgom - 500
1895 October 13
Most of the Armenians in Baghesh are killed by the Turks.
1895 October 16
Urfa in Yedesia is attacked and in spite of persistent defense, the
Turkish army and the Turkish mob succeed in slaying around 10,000
Armenians. On the same day, the Turks inflict similiar carnage in
Shapin-Garahisar. 2000 Armenians are slain in the town and 3000 in 30
1895 October 21
The Armenian population in Erzingan, a town of Erzerum vilayet, is
slaughtered by the Turks. 1000 Armenians are killed.
1895 October 23
3000 Armenians of Malatia are killed. 1000 houses are burned.
1895 October 25
Massacres follow in Bitlis, in the vilayet of Bitlis.
1895 October 26
Almost the entire Armenian population of Kharput is slaughtered by the
Turks. The body count exceeds 4000. Mass massacres take place in Bayburd,
vilayet of Erzerum. 165 villages are destroyed.
1895 October 27-28
Massacres in Urfa, vilayet of Aleppo, the first by the Hamidie Kurdish
regiments organized by the Turks for this purpose, confirmed by the report
of the British consul, Fitzmaurice, dated March 16, 1896.
1895 October 30
Massacres in Erzerum, vilayet of Erzerum. 400 killed by the Turkish mob
1895 October 31
Massacres occur in Garin and in the vilayet of Erzerum. Around 2000
Armenians are killed; 43 villages are destroyed.
Organized massacres of Armenians by Turks in
Constantinople and Trebizond.
1895 November 1
Diarbekir carnage begins. 1000 Armenians are killed in the town and
30,000 more in the villages. 119 villages are destroyed. Massacres in
Arabkir, vilayet of Kharput. 2,800 dead. Massacres in Diarbekir, vilayet
of Diarbekir. Confirmed by a telegram of Meyrier, the French consul in
Diarbekir, sent on November 3 to P. Cambon, the French ambassador in
Constantinople. He estimates incorrectly: 5000 dead. 119 villages are
pillaged and set on fire.
1895 November 3
Almost the whole Armenian population in Marzvan, around 700 people, are
killed by the Turks.
1895 November 4
3,800 killed in the vilayet of Kharput by the Turks.
1895 November 10
Systematic Turkish army attacks on Van take place. The city of Van, in
the vilayet of Van, is attacked by the Turkish Hamidie forces. Forced
conversions to Islam in Kharput, vilayet of Kharput.
1895 November 11
Turkish army attacks the town of Balu, in the vilayet of Kharput. It
results in 1680 Armenian deaths. Turkey proclaims a holy war
1895 November 12
Turks kill 1,500 Armenians in the vilayet of Sivas, and an equal number
1895 November 15-17
Armies of Sultan destroy Aintab in the vilayet of Aleppo and kill 1500
1895 November 18
Massacres in Marash, vilayet of Aleppo. 1,000 Armenians are
1895 November 18-20
160 villages around the city of Van are robbed and pillaged.
1895 November 28
In Zklus, 200 Armenians are killed; in Amasia, 100; and in Aleppo,
Armenians of the villages of Norduz, Hayots Dzor, Gavash and Karchevan
in the vilayet of Bitlis are set upon by fire and sword. 100 villages are
destroyed. On December 28 in the town of Ourfa (Yedesia), 8000 Armenians
are slaughtered. 100 villages around Mush, vilayet of Bitlis, are
1895 December 28
A battalion of Turkish-led Hamidie forces, proceeding from Aleppo,
encircles the town of Urfa. Massacres on the following day kill 8,000
Armenians. This is confirmed by the above-mentioned report of the British
consul, Fitzmaurice, dated March 16, 1896, as well as by the French
Most of the figures mentioned through 1895 come to a total of 150,000
to 300,000 dead, to which must be added some 150,000 forced conversions
and some 100,000 emigrants forced to flee. The report written by the
agents of the European Powers estimate 28,000 killed just in the
localities where representatives of foreign nations were
1896 June 8-15
The population of Van and nearby villages is destroyed. The major
Armenian population of Sgherdi is decimated and survivors are forcibly
converted to Islam. In 40 villages of Khizan, 400 people, and in 20
villages of Mamrzank 160 people are slain, and the others are converted to
Islam forcibly. All Armenian villages of Shatakh are devastated and turned
to ruins. 11 villages of Gyumushkhane are destroyed and most of their
Turks break their vow and near St. Bartholemew Church, attack Armenians
in Van seeking to defend themselves, murdering 1500 people. The survivors
flee to Persia.
1896 August 26
A group of Armenian militants of the Dashnak Party
occupies the Ottoman Bank in Constantinople in order to gain the attention
of foreign powers to the oppression of the Armenians. Achieving their
purpose, they leave the bank in the evening and are picked up by boat and
taken to France. Much attention is aroused in the Western capitals.
However, this action results in a massacre in Constantinople, on August
27, killing approximately 7,000 Armenian victims.
1896 August 28
Representatives of the Great Powers send a telegram of protest to the
1896 September 2
Armenian population of Agn is destroyed. Half the houses in the city
are burned. Joint verbal note of protest issued by the Great Powers,
accusing the Sublime Porte directly.
1896 September 3
In the city of Mush and its villages, 250 Armenians are killed by the
1896 November 10
In Agn's Binkaya village, 250 Armenians are killed. Of the 250 houses
there, only 12 houses remain standing.
300,000 Armenians become the victims of the carnages inflicted by the
Turks. In addition, almost as many flee the country.
Military coup in Salonica by the Young Turk movement (the Union and
Progress Party). There begins a brief period of collaboration among Turks,
Armenians and other minorities. The subsequent massacres in Adana do not
shake this new-found cooperation.
30,000 Armenians are slaughtered in Adana, Tarsus and other towns of
Cilicia. The Turkish army bears direct responsibility, but the Armenian
community is willing to consider it as an isolated incident, and to
continue to trust the Young Turks until further events prove
Under the combined influence of Russia and Great Britain,
the Turkish authorities sign the Armenian Reform Project and agree to take
certain measures in favor of the Armenian population.The Dutch, Westemeck,
and the Norwegian, Hoft, are appointed as General Inspectors of the
Armenian provinces, but they are rendered ineffective. The promised
measures are not implemented.
1914- beginning of 1915
The Armenian Patriarchate in Constantinople estimates the
Armenian population in Turkey at 2,100,000. World War I begins July 1914.
Loyally, the Armenians participate in the war effort. Mobilization of the
entire population, including Armenians, is decreed and the Armenians of
Turkey take part in the war on the Caucasian and Western fronts.
Immediately preceding the war, the Armenian population is neutral because
a number of Armenians in Russia is mobilized on the Russian side, and a
natural desire to avoid a fratricidal war. Some Armenian presence in the
Russian Army will become an argument used by the Turkish authorities in
their attempt to justify the measures they took later to destroy the
Enver is disastrously defeated in Sarikamish at the hands
of Russian troops, marking a failure of his Pan-Turanian plans. The
Turkish authorities decree the demobilization and disarmament of the
Armenians. The Armenians are grouped into small work battalions used for
garbage details and similar tasks. The Armenian soldiers in the Turkish
army, under the pretext of work details, are marched and killed in cold
blood or used for target practice.
1915 January 13
A.F. Kerensky, a member of the National Council of Russia and later
briefly to be the leader of Russia, in a report, describes the astounding
plight of Armenian refugees. He declares that when the Turkish attacks on
Russian territory began, rivers of Armenian refugees stretched to the
North. "That was not an escape, it was the
great demise of a whole nation".
1915 February 13
Two Armenian deputies of the Ottoman Assembly submit a note concerning
the massacres and executions of several such battalions.
1915 February 26
War Minister Enver convenes 75 top ranking Ittihadists.
This secret meeting finalizes the details of the plan to carry out a
genocide of the Armenians. Evidence indicates that the decision to
carry out the Genocide was made some years earlier.
1915 April 8
The process of removing the Armenian population of Zeitun commences.
Taking advantage of the defense staged by a group of young Armenians, the
Turkish army invades Zeitun, with the assistance of local Turks, to
re-establish control. The mass deportation and massacres of Armenian
inhabitants of the entire region is immediately organized. This
mountainous region had always preserved a quasi-autonomy.
1915 April 15
Talaat, Enver and Nazem send a secret order to the local governments
for the removal and extermination of Armenians in Turkey.
1915 April 15-18
While the Armenian population of Van is fleeing to Russia because of
the evacuation of the Russian army, the Turkish forces attack villages of
the vilayet. They destroy 80 villages and slay 24,000 Armenians in the
vilayet and city of Van. The Turks accuse the Armenians of collaboration
with the Russian troops.
1915 April 20
At the news of the massacres, the mostly Armenian
population of Van takes to the barricades. The Turkish authorities will
also use this incident on the Caucasian front and the resistance of the
Armenians as a pretext to justify the measures of deportation (and
massacre) they are about to inflict.
1915 April 20- May 19
The remaining Armenians of Van try to defend themselves from the
overwhelming Turkish forces.
1915 April 24
800 Armenian leaders, writers and intellectuals are arrested in
Constantinople and murdered. The barbaric Armenian genocide begins. This
is a most important date for all Armenians today. It represents the date
for commemorating the Armenian Genocide each year throughout the
1915 April 27-30
The forced removal and deportation of Dyurt Yol's Armenian population
1915 May 15
Turkish forces begin the process of removal and deportation of the
Armenian population from villages in the vilayet of Erzerum.
1915 May 16
Law of May 16, 1915 is enacted with "instructions
pertaining to property and real estate abandoned by the deported
Armenians, consequences of the war and unusual political circumstances".
This law provides for the installation of Turkish refugees in the homes
and on the lands belonging to the Armenians.
1915 May 24
The governments of England, France and Russia jointly warn the Turkish
government publicly that "They will hold personally responsible... all
members of the Ottoman government and those of their agents who are
implicated in such massacres". This is the first time in the international
arena three large countries publicly characterize the Turkish actions
against Armenians as crimes against "humanity and civilization" for which
"personal responsibility is laid on every member of the Turkish government
who participated in the carnages". The communique of the Allied Powers of
the Entente, published by the Havas news agency, accuses the Ottoman
Turkish government directly for the massacres against the Armenian
1915 May 27
The law of May 27, 1915 is enacted concerning the "displacement of
suspected persons." This law empowers army officers to relocate
populations upon the simple suspicion of treason or for military
1915 June 1
12,000 Armenian soldiers in the Turkish army are massacred in Balu,
vilayet of Diarbekir.
1915 June 10
A supplementary law is enacted regarding reporting
property of deportees. See entry under September 26 as to supplementary
law adopted September 26, 1915.
1915 June 12 - July 3
Turkish armies slay or remove Armenians of Shapin Garahisar, who tried
to defend themselves.
1915 June 15
21 leaders of the Hnchukyan Party are hanged publicly in
1915 June 24
Massacres and deportations of the inhabitants of Shabin Karahissar
1915 June 25
The removal and deportation of the Armenians of the city of Sivas
1915 June 26
The removal of the Armenian population of Kharput and Trebizond
vilayets are commenced by the Turkish army. Photocopy of the original
deportation order (written in old Turkish with Arabic characters) is to be
found in the Archives of the United States State Department in Washington,
1915 June 27
Mass removals and deportations of Armenians begin in Samsun.
1915 July 1
Assyrians and Armenians are deported from Medzpin (Nisibe), Tel-Ermen
(Hill of the Armenians), Bitlis, vilayet of Bitlis, Mardin and surrounding
1915 July 3
The massacre begins of the Armenian population of Mush, Sassun and
Bitlis vilayets begins.
1915 July 10
The Armenian population of Malatia is deported.
1915 July 13
Self-defense of Musa mountain begins. The heroic band of Armenians is
later vividly depicted in the best-selling novel "Forty Days of Musa Dagh"
by Franz Werfel.
1915 July 27
The Armenian population of Cilicia and Antioch is deported.
1915 July 28
The removal of the Armenian population of the Cilician cities, Aintab
and Qilise, is carried out. In Great Britain's House of Lords, in answer
to Viscount James Bryce's question concerning the slaughter of Christians
in Armenia, the president of the Military Council, Lord Grew declares that
the information received by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs shows that the
Turkish crimes are increasing both in numbers and in violence. Lord Grew
declares that "all those mass carnages and violent removals are engaged
under the pretext of forced transmigration".
1915 July 29
Deportations begin from Aintab and Kilisse, in
1915 July 30
Deportations begin from Suedia, in Cilicia.
1915 August 16
Deportations begin from Marash in Cilicia and Konia in western Asia
1915 August 10- 19
Removal and deportations begin of Armenians from Smyrna (Nikodemia),
Brusa, Bartizak, Adabazar and surrounding areas.
1915 August 19
Removal and deportation begin of Armenian population of Urfa in
1915 September 15
Turkey's Minister of Interior, Talaat Pasha, cables to the Aleppo
Prefecture the confirmation of the previously transmitted order for
removal of Armenians and their final elimination. The original of this
cable is reproduced in the book of A. Andonian "The Memoirs of Naim Bey
(The Genocide of the Armenians by the Turks). With a New Preface by the
Armenian Historical Association", Documentary Series, Vol. I, Great
Britain, Reprint 1964, 83 pp. Exhibit No. 3 at the trial of Soghomon
Tehlirian, authenticated by the German Court. (At a trial before a Berlin
court in 1921, following the assassination of Talaat by Tehlirian,
Tehlirian was acquitted by the Court because of the
1915 September 15
Rashid, Governor of Diarbekir, sends cable to Talaat, the Minister of
the Interior, announcing that the number of Armenians "expelled" from
Diarbekir has reached 120,000.
1915 September 26
"Provisional law concerning the property, debts and
receivables of persons relocated elsewhere" is adopted. This law provides
for the liquidation of debts and receivables of displaced persons
(Armenians). A special commission is "charged" with holding the proceeds
of sales in escrow. The German Foreign Office summarized this law as
compressed to provide "1. All goods of the Armenians are confiscated. 2.
The governments will cash in the credits of the deportees and will repay
(will not repay) their debts".
1915 September 30 and October 7
In Bern, Switzerland, at its Central Hall, public meetings are held
deploring the ongoing Armenian tragedy.
110 famous German and Italian civilians in Switzerland, including
scientists, journalists and public figures publish "The Call" both in
French and German, in defense of the Armenian people.
As in Switzerland, in many other places all over the
world, there were many, many public meetings of protest and countless
public statements by various heads of state and other officials condemning
the Turkish massacres and deportations of the Armenians, threatening the
Turks responsible with appropriate punishment and promising justice and
territorial and/or monetary restitution for the Armenians. The statements
and meetings referred to in this chronology are but a tiny sample.
1915 October 6
In Great Britain's House of Lords, Lord James Bryce denounces the
Turkish murderous campaign against the Armenians. He declares the time has
passed when any harm could be caused by public statements and the more
complete the statements, the more good it may bring, because it remains
the only chance of preventing these carnages from continuing, if they are
not over yet. It is a pity, he says, that his information from several
sources indicates that the number of victims is very large. It is
considered to be 800,000 as of then. He states that there is no
commandment in Islam that can justify such slaughters. He urges every
effort be made to send help for the poor, wretched survivors, hundreds of
which are dying of starvation and disease. "That is all that we can do now
in England and let us do it and do it swiftly".
1915 October 12
In Great Britain's House of Commons, the Minister of Foreign Affairs,
Edward Grey declares "All the information concerning the carnages of
Armenians in Turkey became public. Only two feelings can describe it -
horror and disturbance."
1915 November 16
As the government spokesman for questions from members of the House of
Commons, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lord R. Cecil declares that
Turkey intended not to punish the Armenian race, but to destroy it. That
was the only goal.
1915 November 18
In Paris at the "American Club", a public meeting urges help to
alleviate the Armenian suffering.
1915 December 12
Talaat, Minister of the Interior, sends a telegram to the Prefecture of
Aleppo. He states that in view of the rather compassionate attitude of
certain valis with respect to orphans, the order is given that the orphans
be sent away with the caravans, with the exception of the very young ones
unable to remember the atrocities. The original cable is reproduced in
said Andonian's book "The Memoirs of Naim Bey (The Genocide
of the Armenians by the Turks)".
In Germany's Reichstag, deputy Karl Libknecht, an international
socialist figure, directs a question to the Vice Chancellor, as to whether
he is aware that in Turkey, their ally, thousands of Armenian citizens
have been removed from their homes and exterminated. He demands that the
German government forbid the Turks from further terrifying actions against
the remaining Armenian population.
1916 February 9
The United States Senate votes (with the concurrence of the House
of Representatives) to ask the President of the United States of America
to set a special day when citizens of this country can help Armenians with
financial support, considering that many of them, being in the country
that was at war, were forced to leave their houses and belongings without
any opportunity to care even for their primal needs, are afflicted with
hunger, disease and untold sufferings. President Wilson designates August
21 and August 22 for making contributions for the suffering
1916 February 9
In the Russian Duma, Minister of Foreign Affairs S.D. Sazonov declares
"I have mentioned before about the awful sufferings of that wretched race.
Under the tacit assent of its ally, Germany, the Turks hoped to bring
alive their desire to exterminate the entire Armenian race..."
1916 March 7
Talaat, Minister of the Interior, sends a cable to the Aleppo
Prefecture, ordering the extermination of children at military
1916 April 9
"Homage to Armenia" gathering takes place in Paris' Sorbonne
University, attracting thousands of people. Speaking at that gathering,
France's Minister of Education declares that "For more than a year
carnages paint Armenia red in blood and have surpassed other crimes in
scale and in violence. Germany can be proud of its horrid deeds". At the
same program, the opening words of the president of the National Council
of France, Paul Deshnanel, firmly condemns the slaughter of Armenians at
the hands of the Turkish executioners.
1916 July 29
"France-Armenia" company is formed in Paris, members of which are
ministers of the French government, senators, deputies, Georges
Clemenceau, writer Anatole France and other dignitaries.
1916 August 19
Decree abolishes the national Armenian constitution of 1863, in
violation of Article 61 of the Treaty of Berlin concerning religious
1916 November 16
In Berlin's Missionary Union, Doctor Karl Accenfeld sends a statement
to the German Chancellor Bettman-Holveg in which he asserts "In neutral
countries large accusations are spreading against Germany about not only
calmly watching, but also helping to realize the extinction of a whole
Christian race". Note: In the bibliography in this web-site is listed a
volume by Dadrian dealing with the German involvement.
By a special decree/law the government of Turkey condemns the 1978
Treaty of Berlin and especially Article 61.
1917 March 29
In Stockholm, a large meeting takes place dedicated to repudiation of
the mass murder of Armenians. The members of the meeting deplore the
insensitivity of Sweden towards Armenians.
1917 November 6
In Great Britain's House of Commons, Minister of Foreign Affairs,
Arthur Balfour declares "Do we need to ignore that Armenia should be given
back, as respected gentlemen wish to give it back with their formula,
under the reign of Turkey. I don't want to ruin the Turkish community -
consisting of Turks, in Turkish fitting style, commanding the Turks. No,
our constant goal is the emancipation of non-Turks from Turkish
governance. What is imperialistic in wishing to see Poland independent,
Armenia liberated from Turks, Alsace Lorraine rejoined to France, to see
Italy having its own population, language, area and
1917 December 4
Speaking in the Congress of the United States, President Wilson states
"We hope to provide the right and opportunity for people living in the
Turkish Empire to make their lives safe and their fate secure from
aggression and injustice, orders of foreign courts and parties.
In the name of the "Germano - Armenian community", Paul Rorbach, Edward
Kir and Martin Rade urge the government of Germany to promote autonomy for
1918 January 8
President Wilson's Declaration of Fourteen Points is published. The
12th Point extends promise to the Armenians of security of life
and an unmolested opportunity for autonomous development.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed between Russia and
Turkey after Russia's withdrawal brought about by the Russian Revolution.
Turkish invasion of Russian Armenia causes more killings of Armenians
including those fleeing from Turkish Armenia. Fighting continues on the
Caucasian front involving Armenian units.
1918 May 28
The Armenian National Council, of necessity to fill a
vacuum, announces itself the supreme and only administrative body
for the comparatively small remaining territory in what was Russian
Armenia. Such words as "independence" or "republic" are intentionally
avoided pending the outcome of a nearby battle with the invading Turkish
forces (which the Armenians do win).
1918 June 4
In Batum, the Treaty of Peace and Friendship is signed between Ottoman
Turkey and the Republic of Armenia, proclaiming, hollowly, peace and
eternal friendship. It provided, among other terms, detailed provisions
dealing with conduct at or near their common boundary.
United States Congressman Edward Little presents a resolution to the
Congress advocating that the "Armenian people have the right to be free
and independent, have an outlet to the sea and be the masters of the
Christian culture for which their sons had been sacrificed".
1918 October 30
The armistice of Moudros ends the war between the Allies
and Turkey. Global estimates of the campaign of extermination: close to
1,500,000 Armenians dead.
Defeated Turkey recognizes the small Armenian Republic whose territory
consists only of a small fraction of former Armenian lands. Turkey also
cedes to it the vilayets of Kars and Ardahan the following year. This
transfer proves to be only temporary.
1918 November 13
In Great Britain's House of Lords, James Bryce, speaking about Armenia
and Cilicia, severely criticizes the Turkish government. He states in
part: "As Your Highness and Lords already know, the present Turkish
government includes people that were involved in the astonishing carnages
(that happened in 1915). Every respected Lord that wants to refresh his
memory can read the Blue Book published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
in 1916, in which you'll find the description of the awful massacres that
are written in history everywhere, in spite of all the attempts not to
allow or justify them. Not only is Talaat Pasha in the group of criminals
that created the Union and Progress Committee, but also others who still
are active in the present Turkish government must take the responsibility
for those carnages".
1918 December 10
United States Senator Henry Cabot Lodge presented a proposal for the
Senate to express the view that Armenia, including the six vilayets in
Turkey and Cilicia should be independent and the peace conference should
help Armenia to create an independent republic. While Lodge was very
sympathetic to the Armenian cause, he later opposed the United States
accepting a mandate of Armenia to avoid possible military
By the order of Sultan Mahmed VI it was ordered that the First, Second
and Third Military Tribunals prosecute criminally the leaders of the
"Young Turks" and other implicated members of the government.
1919 April 8
A Military Tribunal finds a number of Turkish leaders guilty of
carnages in the Yozkhat area. The Court finds that Kemal Bey ordered the
Moslems of the area to eliminate all the Armenian population, and
sentences him to death.
1919 April 27
In Constantinople, the trial begins of members of the Union and
Progress Party, and other leaders of the Turkish government. The trial
continues until June 26, 1919.
1919 May 22
The special Military Court tries the organizers of deportations and
slaughter in Trebizond and punishes eight as criminals.
1919 May 28
By secret order of the British Military Government, 77 Turkish
criminals are transferred from a prison at Constantinople to Malta and
their convictions are expunged.
1919 June 25
In the name of the the Supreme Allied Council, Georges Clemenceau
declares at the Peace Conference that Turkey officially has accepted guilt
for the Armenian massacres.
Following the trial of the Unionists (these were the
members of the Union and Progress Committee, in power since 1909), Talaat
Pasha, Enver Pasha, Djemal Pasha and Dr. Nazim "are adjudged to be the
principal criminals and their guilt has been decided by unanimous vote".
All four are sentenced to death in absentia. It is to be noted that this
trial took place during the period Constantinople was occupied by the
1919 October 17
The Supreme Council of the Allies, at the San Remo
Conference, proposes that the United States accept a mandate over Armenia.
1920 January 13 and for months following
Various other trials take place in Constantinople and a number of
Turkish officials and Young Turks are convicted and sentenced to death for
their involvement in the crimes against the Armenian people.
French forces in post-war occupation of Cilicia
unexpectedly withdraw. Turks take advantage of the opportunity and kill
1920 May 24
The President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, asks the Congress
to give him the right to accept a mandate over Armenia and send troops
there. Ultimately, the United States decides not to accept a mandate
because of the inherent risks, even though still widely sympathetic to the
1920 August 10
The Treaty of Sevres, signed by Turkey, Britain, France,
Italy, Japan, Armenia, Belgium, Greece, Lebanon, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Serbian-Croatian-Slovenic Republic and Czechoslovakia, recognizes
the Armenian Republic and ordains that the borders between Turkey and
Armenia in the vilayets of Erzerum, Trebizond, Van and Bitlis be
determined by President Wilson. According to the peace agreement, Turkey
accepts its responsibility for the crimes against the Armenians during the
war and undertakes the obligation to compensate for the losses sustained
by the Armenians. It also agrees to hand over to the Allies the persons
responsible for the massacres. President Wilson appoints a commision which
sets the boundaries of a much expanded Armenia, including significant
seacoast, but all to naught. The Treaty of Sevres is never carried out. It
was repudiated by Turkey and eventually replaced by the Treaty of
Lausanne, which had no provisions dealing with Armenia.
Unrepentant Turkey enacts the law of "abandoned property" which
provides for the confiscation of all property abandoned by Armenians
absent from the country, regardless of the date, reason or conditions of
1923 July 24
The Treaty of Lausanne is signed by the new Republic of Turkey and the
Great Powers. The Treaty recognizes full Turkish sovereignty over all its
territory, and contains no provisions about Armenia. Winston Churchill has
written: "In the Treaty of Lausanne, which re-establishes peace between
Turkey and the Allies, history will search in vain for the word
Turkey adopts a law which prohibits the return of Armenians who left
Cilicia or any of the eastern vilayets whether or not they had left